By Anny Bakalian, Medhi Bozorgmehr
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Additional resources for Backlash 9/11: Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans Respond
Susan Olzak and Emily Ryo theorize that “movement mobilization is a function of changes in the political climate that make collective action more likely to succeed, such as an increase in the level of elite receptivity to protestors or a restructuring of existing power relations” (2004, 2). In other words, the “institutional structure[s] and ideological dispositions of those in power” must be sufficiently open to the demands of the group of claimants (McAdam and Snow 1997, 3). While some studies of immigration in Europe have addressed issues most pertinent to our case (Koopmans et al.
Contemporary history is, after all, a contradiction in terms. ”4 In the next section, we explore each of the historical precedents, including the stereotypes, discrimination, and scapegoating suffered by Middle Eastern and Muslim immigrants in America. Then we develop a typology of the scope of minority targeting in times of war or political/ideological crisis. S. HISTORY GERMAN AMERICANS DURING WORLD WAR I Xenophobia reached unprecedented levels by the time the United States entered the Great War, and the Espionage Act of 1917 gave the government the tools to turn prejudice into policy.
It consists of the purposive and public articulation of political demands, calls to action, proposals, criticisms, or physical attacks, which, actually or potentially, affect the interests or integrity of the claimants and/or other collective actors” (2005, 254). In this volume, we use the two terms interchangeably. We contend that backlash promotes mobilization/claims making in the short or long term, depending upon favorable structural and cultural conditions, namely political opportunities, resources, repertoires of collective action, and framing processes.
Backlash 9/11: Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans Respond by Anny Bakalian, Medhi Bozorgmehr