Download e-book for iPad: Backlash 9/11: Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans Respond by Anny Bakalian, Medhi Bozorgmehr

By Anny Bakalian, Medhi Bozorgmehr

ISBN-10: 0520257340

ISBN-13: 9780520257344

For so much american citizens, September eleven, 2001, symbolized the instant while their defense was once altered. For center japanese and Muslim americans, 9-11 additionally ushered in a backlash within the type of hate crimes, discrimination, and a string of devastating govt projects. This booklet offers the 1st complete research of the impression of the post-9/11 occasions on center japanese and Muslim american citizens in addition to their geared up reaction. via fieldwork and interviews with group leaders, Anny Bakalian and Mehdi Bozorgmehr convey how ethnic corporations mobilized to illustrate their dedication to the USA whereas protecting their rights and distancing themselves from the terrorists.

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Sample text

Susan Olzak and Emily Ryo theorize that “movement mobilization is a function of changes in the political climate that make collective action more likely to succeed, such as an increase in the level of elite receptivity to protestors or a restructuring of existing power relations” (2004, 2). In other words, the “institutional structure[s] and ideological dispositions of those in power” must be sufficiently open to the demands of the group of claimants (McAdam and Snow 1997, 3). While some studies of immigration in Europe have addressed issues most pertinent to our case (Koopmans et al.

Contemporary history is, after all, a contradiction in terms. ”4 In the next section, we explore each of the historical precedents, including the stereotypes, discrimination, and scapegoating suffered by Middle Eastern and Muslim immigrants in America. Then we develop a typology of the scope of minority targeting in times of war or political/ideological crisis. S. HISTORY GERMAN AMERICANS DURING WORLD WAR I Xenophobia reached unprecedented levels by the time the United States entered the Great War, and the Espionage Act of 1917 gave the government the tools to turn prejudice into policy.

It consists of the purposive and public articulation of political demands, calls to action, proposals, criticisms, or physical attacks, which, actually or potentially, affect the interests or integrity of the claimants and/or other collective actors” (2005, 254). In this volume, we use the two terms interchangeably. We contend that backlash promotes mobilization/claims making in the short or long term, depending upon favorable structural and cultural conditions, namely political opportunities, resources, repertoires of collective action, and framing processes.

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Backlash 9/11: Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans Respond by Anny Bakalian, Medhi Bozorgmehr


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