Schmidt G.'s Beginners introduction to the assembly language of Atmel AVR PDF

By Schmidt G.

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Extra info for Beginners introduction to the assembly language of Atmel AVR microprocessors

Example text

Now we add some more complicated stuff. We compare the content of R16 with a constant: 0b10101010. CPI R16,0xAA If the Zero-bit in the status register is set after that, we know that R16 is 0xAA. If the carry-bit is set, we know, it is smaller. If Carry is not set and the Zero-bit is not set either, we know it is bigger. And now the most complicated test. net BRPL, BRLO, BRSH, BRGE, BRLT, BRVC or BRVS to branch around a bit. Still with us? If yes, here is some packed BCD calculations. Adding two packed BCDs can result in two different overflows.

Finally we add the BCD and repeat that algorithm until all decimal digits are converted. If, during one of these operations, there occurs a carry of the result, the BCD is too big to be converted. This algorithm handles numbers of any length, as long as the result registers are prepared. The conversion of a binary to BCDs is more complicated than that. If we convert a 16-bit-binary we can subtract 10,000 (0x2710), until an overflow occurs, yielding the first digit. Then we repeat that with 1,000 (0x03E8) to yield the second digit.

By dividing with 256, the AVR is even faster, because we just have to skip the last byte of the binary number. Not even shift and rotate! The multiplication of an 8-bit-binary with the 9-bit-binary 502 (hex 1F6) can have a result greater than 16 bits. So we have to reserve 24 bits or 3 registers for the result. During multiplication, the constant 502 has to be shifted left (multiplication by 2) to add these numbers to the result each time a one rolls out of the input number. As this might need eight shifts left, we need futher three bytes for this constant.

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Beginners introduction to the assembly language of Atmel AVR microprocessors by Schmidt G.

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