By Jennifer Karas
Karas compares the gains and occupational attainment of chinese language, Cuban, Filipino, Korean, and Mexican immigrants to these of foreign-born non-Hispanic whites. utilizing census information, she exams 3 versions of attainment: a human and social capital version, an area exertions marketplace version, and a version combining human capital and native hard work industry signs opposed to a baseline ethnic history version. She reveals a double hierarchy of inequality. Asian and Hispanic immigrants are reduce on socio-economic scales than foreign-born non-Hispanic whites, yet Asians have better profits than Latinos. Ethnic alterations on human and social capital elements and native exertions marketplace symptoms clarify the difference in socioeconomic attainments and give a contribution to adjustments in immigrant attainments. although, foreign-born non-Hispanic whites keep a bonus over the opposite teams even after variations in human and social capital and native hard work industry stipulations are eradicated.
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Extra info for Bridges and Barriers: Earnings and Occupational Attainment Among Immigrants (New Americans) (New Americans (Lfb Scholarly Publishing Llc).)
Problems exist in the conceptualization of the enclave, whether defined by industrial sector, spatial concentration, place of residence, or 36 Bridges and Barriers place of work. Furthermore, the lack of fine-grained data through which this dilemma could be resolved poses a barrier. The debate over the contours of the enclave has introduced some amount of skepticism as to the beneficial effects of working in an ethnically segregated community. Despite the heuristic appeal of these ideas of a sharply divided economy and of ethnically stratified labor markets, little empirical evidence supports their distinct existence (Wallace and Kalleberg 1982; Baron and Bielby 1984; Ryan 1981).
Similar to the economics of discrimination, human capital theory explains income discrepancy in terms of discrimination. , skills, training, and education (Becker 1993 ). Therefore, human capital theory describes economically rational discrimination. One rationally chooses those workers whose skills portend the best work for the lowest cost. Human capital refers to abilities such as education, training, and skills that are presumed to have value in the marketplace. The theory claims that because employers pay more to those who make greater investments in themselves, employee job prestige increases, and other workplace rewards add to the benefits of the human capital investments (Becker 1993 ; Mincer 1974, 1993).
Ethnic economies have transformed many center cities by supporting a large immigrant workforce and many ethnic businesses. Unable to find jobs that provide substantial returns to prior human capital investments, many immigrants start small businesses. These businesses can benefit from a captive market for culturally defined products and informal sources of credit (Portes and Zhou 1992). Family members provide both physical and economic capital to support the business. These ethnic firms can also contribute to the community by providing opportunities for workers who cannot fare well in the open economy.
Bridges and Barriers: Earnings and Occupational Attainment Among Immigrants (New Americans) (New Americans (Lfb Scholarly Publishing Llc).) by Jennifer Karas