By B. O. Kolbesen (auth.), S. Coffa, F. Priolo, E. Rimini, J. M. Poate (eds.)
Semiconductors lie on the center of a few of an important industries and applied sciences of the 20 th century. The complexity of silicon built-in circuits is expanding significantly end result of the non-stop dimensional shrinkage to enhance potency and performance. This evolution in layout principles poses actual demanding situations for the fabrics scientists and processing engineers. fabrics, defects and processing now need to be understood of their totality. international specialists speak about, during this quantity, the the most important concerns dealing with lithography, ion implication and plasma processing, metallization and insulating layer caliber, and crystal development. specific emphasis is put upon silicon, yet compound semiconductors and photonic fabrics also are highlighted. the elemental recommendations of part balance, interfaces and defects play a key function in figuring out those the most important concerns. those ideas are reviewed in a very important style.
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Additional resources for Crucial Issues in Semiconductor Materials and Processing Technologies
Soc. ill. P. Strunk, H. G. Mohr, J. Electrochem. Soc. 135,2876 (1988) H. P. Strunk, in Proc. Int. Conf. on the Science and Technology of Defect Control in Semiconductors, K. , Elsevier Sci. Publ. Amsterdam (1990) p. G. J. B. K. R. Mader, J. Electrochem. Soc. 130,2237 (1983) H. Tachimori, T. Sakon and T. Kaneko, 7th Keitusho Kohgaku Symposium of Japan Soc. of Appl. , JSAP Catalog No: AP 902217 (June 26,1990) J. Ryuta, E. Morita, T. Tanaka and Y. Shimanuki, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L 1947 (1990) K.
1018 em3 I I I I I I 1016 I I / I I Mn I I I I I I I S 1014 " CU,--/ I I I T-- Fig. 22 Haze photograph of wafer contaminated on the backside by Ni, Pd, Fe, Cu, Co wires in a stripe pattern, after 1200°C, 30 s anneal and defect etching Fig. 23 Solubilities of many interstitially dissolved 3d-transition metals in Si; Au (mainly substitutional) shown for comparison b) The low solubility paired with a steep temperature dependence (Fig. 23): Due to maximum solubilities in the ppm and sub ppm range traces of impurities can saturate the silicon wafer at processing temperature and high supersaturations are created during cooling to room temperature.
A transport system (belts) and vacuum tweezers can clearly be identified as contamination source. Because of the discussed detrimental effects monitoring and control of metal contamination is an important task in the mass production of VLSI devices such as megabit memories. , by application of appropriate, repeated wafer cleaning and by using improved process equipment and wafer handling tools and adequate quality levels of water, gases and chemicals. However, all these precautions cannot exclude accidental metal contaminations during device fabrication.
Crucial Issues in Semiconductor Materials and Processing Technologies by B. O. Kolbesen (auth.), S. Coffa, F. Priolo, E. Rimini, J. M. Poate (eds.)