Download e-book for kindle: Design Principles for the Immune System and Other by Lee A. Segel, Irun R. Cohen

By Lee A. Segel, Irun R. Cohen

ISBN-10: 0195136993

ISBN-13: 9780195136999

ISBN-10: 0198031343

ISBN-13: 9780198031345

Layout rules for the Immune approach and different allotted independent structures is the 1st booklet to envision the internal workings of this type of number of dispensed independent systems--from insect colonies to excessive point laptop courses to the immune method. It deals perception into the interesting international of those structures that emerge from the interactions of doubtless self sufficient elements and brings us up to date at the kingdom of study in those components. utilizing the immune approach and sure features of its capabilities as a major version, this booklet examines the various best and troubling questions posed by means of advanced platforms. How do structures pick out the suitable set of brokers to accomplish acceptable activities with applicable intensities at applicable instances? How within the immune approach, ant colonies and metabolic networks does the diffusion and binding of a giant number of chemical substances to their receptors enable coordination of method motion? What benefits force some of the platforms to complexity, and via what mechanisms do the structures do something about the tendency towards unwieldiness and randomness of huge advanced platforms?

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Additional info for Design Principles for the Immune System and Other Distributed Autonomous Systems (Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity Proceedings)

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Protein fragments. the part of the immune system involving scavenger cells that detect extracellular molecules and material, clearing the body of both debris and pathogens. activated B cells that secrete antibodies. the stimulation and maturation in the thymus of T cells with sufficient affinity to antigens presented by self MCH; T cells that do not undergo positive selection in the thymus die. Steven A. Hofmeyr Primary response: Receptors: Repertoire: Secondary response: Signal I: Signal II: Tolerant lymphocytes: T-helper cell Thymus: Thl cells: Th2 cells: Variable antibody regions: 25 the immune response to antigens that the immune system has never before encountered.

3) with pleiotrophy. They possess redundancy (fig. 4(a)) in that different cytokines have similar actions and they can act with synergism (fig. 4(b)) or antagonism (fig. 4(c)) since exposure of cells to two or more cytokines at a time may lead to qualitatively different responses. Thomas N. Denny 33 FIGURE 3 A specific cytokine may act on multiple target cells showing a pleiotrophic action. For example, IL-4 produced by a TH cell may stimulate a B cell to undergo activation, proliferation, and differentiation.

6). IL-1 is a prototypic multifunctional cytokine that exists in two forms, IL-la and IL-1/3, and affects nearly every cell. Its properties are compared to other proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-a and IL-6, in table 3. Subsequent release of these cytokines will induce many of the localized and systemic changes observed in the acute response (table 4). This response includes the induction of fever, increased synthesis of hormones such as ACTH and hydrocortisone, increased production of leukocytes, and production of a large number of hepatocytederived acute-phase proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA).

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Design Principles for the Immune System and Other Distributed Autonomous Systems (Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity Proceedings) by Lee A. Segel, Irun R. Cohen

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