By Joseph Needham
After volumes commonly introductory, Dr Needham now embarks upon his systematic research of the improvement of the ordinary sciences in China. The Sciences of the Earth keep on with: geography and cartography, geology, seismology and mineralogy. Dr Needham distinguishes parallel traditions of medical cartography and spiritual cosmography in East and West, discussing orbocentric wheel-maps, the origins of the oblong grid process, crusing charts and reduction maps, chinese language survey equipment, and the impression of Renaissance cartography at the East. Finally-and right here Dr Needham's paintings has no Western predecessors-there are complete bills of the chinese language contribution to geology and mineralogy.
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Extra resources for Science and Civilisation in China, Volume 3: Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth
Uranographie Chinoise; number-references are to the list of asterisms. SCTS Chhin-Ting Shu Ching Thu Shoo (imperial illustrated edition of the Historical Classic), 1905. T Tunhuang Archaeological Research Institute numbers of the Chhien-fo-tung cave temples. In the present work we follow as far as possible the numbering of Hsieh Chih-Liu in his Tunhuang I Shu Hsii Lu (Shanghai, 1955) but give the other numbers also. , Textes Historiques. TKKW Sung Ying-Hsing, Thien Kung Khai Wu (The Exploitation of the Works Of Nature), + 1637.
L were stabilised. The former were used for units, the latter for tens, the former for hundreds, the latter for thousands, and so on. By the + 3rd century at least, they were termed respectively tsung 5 and heng 6 numerals. f The Sun Tzu Suan Ching g of this period says: In making calculations we must first know the positions (and structure)( wei 7 ) (of numerals). The units are vertical and the tens horizontal, the hundreds stand while the thousands lie down; thousands and tens therefore look the same, as also the ten thousands and the hundreds ....
132ff. Cf. p . 95 below. i Vol. 2, p. 230, in Table I I. Other relevant words are also dealt with there. J Or at least none has yet been recognised. SAR' 3 • • ~1t:ff§ 5W ~Jm 19. 4 MATHEMATICS it may not be older than the time of Li Ssu (- 3rd century). While the suggestion that the later written form (see diagram) embodies an ancient (pre-Han) graph of an abacus a must certainly be rejected, it may well represent the counting-boardb with its horizontal lines. 2). The first of these derives from the older written form, the central part of which, though thought by Hsu Shen c to represent jade, is more probably a tally or a few counting-rods.
Science and Civilisation in China, Volume 3: Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth by Joseph Needham